I am reading Hernando De Soto's book The Mystery of Capital right now and encountered a helpful definition of capital, as well as how it has been lost and distorted in contemporary use:
"Simonde de Sismondi, the nineteenth-century Swiss economist, wrote that capital was "a permanent value, that multiplies and does not perish... Now this value detaches itself from the product that creates it, it becomes a metaphysical and insubstantial quantity always in the possession of whoever produced it, for whom this value could [be fixed in] different forms." The great French economist Jean Baptiste Say believed that "capital is always immaterial by nature since it is not matter which makes capital but the value of that matter, value has nothing corporeal about it..."
"This essential meaning of capital has been lost to history. Capital is now confused with money, which is only one of the many forms in which it travels. It is always easier to remember a difficult concept in one of its tangible manifestations than in its essence. The mind wraps itself around "money" more easily than "capital." But it is a mistake to assume that money is what finally fixes capital. As Adam Smith pointed out, money is the "great wheel of circulation," but it is not capital because value "cannot consist in those metal pieces." In other words, money facilitates transactions, allowing us to buy and sell things, but it is not itself the progenitor of additional production. As Smith insisted, "the gold and silver money, which circulates in any country, may very properly be compared to a highway, which, while it circulates and carries to market all the grass and corn of the country, produces itself not a single pile of either."
Much of the mystery of capital dissipates as soon as you stop thinking of "capital" as a synonym for "money saved and invested." The misapprehension that it is money that fixes capital comes about, I suspect, because modern business expresses the value of capital in terms of money. In fact, it is hard to estimate the total value of a collection of assets of very different types, such as machinery, buildings, and land, without resorting to money. After all, that is why money was invented; it provides a standard index to measure the value of things so that we can exchange dissimilar assets. But as useful as it is, money cannot fix in any way the abstract potential of a particular asset in order to convert it into capital. Third World and former communist nations are infamous for inflating their economies with money--while not being able to generate much capital." The Mystery of Capital, pages 43-44.
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